C'est l'occasion ou jamais pour la Grèce de sortir de la zone euro

TILTON – La première phrase du Traité de Rome de 1957 - le texte fondateur de ce qui allait devenir l'Union européenne - appelle à établir les fondements "d'une union sans cesse plus étroite entre les peuples européens". Pourtant sa propre élite politique a récemment mis à mal cet idéal en adoptant la monnaie commune tout en négligeant entièrement les failles sous-jacentes de cette construction. Aujourd'hui ces failles apparaissent au grand jour et se creusent en raison de l'interminable crise grecque. Elles ne sont nulle part plus marquées que dans les relations de la Grèce avec le FMI.

Lorsque la crise de l'euro a éclaté en 2010, les dirigeants européens ont réalisé qu'ils ne disposaient pas de l'expertise voulue pour gérer la menace d'un défaut souverain ou d'une rupture de l'union monétaire. Eviter cette rupture étant devenu leur priorité absolue, ils se sont tournés vers l'aide du FMI. Les irrégularités qui ont entaché l'intervention de ce dernier attestent du degré de gravité de la crise de la zone euro.

Les statuts du FMI exigent qu'il traite avec les Etats membres par l'intermédiaire d'institutions qui rendent compte de l'aide reçue : leur Trésor, leur banque centrale, leur fonds de stabilisation ou un organisme financier analogue. Mais les institutions de la zone euro avec lesquelles il négocie ne sont plus responsables de la gestion macroéconomique de leur pays, ce pouvoir appartenant à la Banque centrale européenne. En accordant un prêt à la Grèce, il a fait comme s'il s'agissait d'une entité sous-nationale (par exemple une mairie ou une région), sans véritablement exiger de garantie aux autorités nationales.

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