World Trade Center pre-9/11 Wally Gobetz/Flickr

重塑昨日的希望

华盛顿—2015年是艰难的一年,这一年,增长预测值下滑,发生了可怕的恐怖袭击、大规模难民和严重的政治挑战,许多国家都兴起了民粹主义。特别是在中东,混乱和暴力继续繁盛,造成了灾难性后果。这是一个令人失望的转变,几十年前尽管缺陷重重但满怀希望的世界已经不在。

在其自传性作品《昨日的世界》(The World of Yesterday)中,斯特凡·茨威格(Stefan Zweig)描述了一个类似的急剧变化。茨威格1881年出生在维也纳,在乐观、文明、宽容的环境中度过了他的青年时代。接着,从1914年开始,他目睹世界爆发第一次世界大战,然后是革命风暴、大萧条、斯大林主义兴起,最终出现了野蛮的纳粹主义和第二次世界大战的爆发。绝望的茨威格于1942年在流亡途中自杀。

你也许会想,茨威格会为二战后成立的联合国和布雷顿森林体系感到欣慰,更不用说此后数十年的复兴和和解时期。他将目睹成为战后时代标志的合作与进步。到那时,也许他会把1914—1915年视为世界在和平与繁荣长征路上的可怕但有限的一次迂回。

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