L’adieu à la solitude

Le prochain président américain tirera forcément une leçon capitale des expériences de l’administration Bush : celle de l’importance du multilatéralisme. Les concepts d’hégémonie américaine et de réponses unilatérales n’ont que peu de sens quand la plupart des défis graves auxquels sont confrontés les pays aujourd’hui, les problèmes comme le réchauffement climatique, les pandémies, la stabilité financière et le terrorisme, sont hors de contrôle même des plus grands des pays. Tous ont besoin d’une coopération multilatérale.

Les Nations unies peuvent jouer un grand rôle pour contribuer à légitimer et à appliquer des accords entre pays, mais même ses plus proches alliés admettent que sa grande taille, ses blocs régionaux rigides, ses procédures diplomatiques formelles et son administration pesante empêchent souvent le consensus. Comme le dit un sage, le problème des organisations multilatérales est “comment impliquer tout le monde et agir quand même.”

Une solution consiste à adjoindre à l’Onu des organisations consultatives informelles au niveau régional et mondial. Par exemple, pendant les crises financières qui ont suivi les chocs pétroliers des années 1970, le gouvernement français a accueilli les dirigeants de cinq économies dominantes pour discuter et coordonner leurs politiques. L’idée était de tenir une réunion réduite dont les participants tiendraient tous dans la bibliothèque du château de Rambouillet.

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