Хороший капитализм, плохой капитализм

Многие люди предполагали, что когда рухнула Берлинская стена в 1989 году, "капитализм" победил в идеологической холодной войне, и что "коммунизм" проиграл. Но, в то время как "капитализм" – определяемый как экономическая система, основанная на частной собственности на имущество – явно преобладал, есть много различий среди почти 200 стран, которые теперь практикуют его в какой-либо форме.

Мы считаем целесообразным подразделять капиталистические экономические системы на четыре широкие категории. В то время как многие экономические системы сочетают несколько из них, большинство экономических систем главным образом относятся к одной категории. Нижеследующая типология помогает объяснить, почему некоторые экономические системы растут быстрее, чем другие.

Олигархический капитализм существует там, где власть и деньги в значительной степени сконцентрированы среди немногих. Это худшая форма капитализма, не только из-за чрезвычайного неравенства в доходе и богатстве, которое такие экономические системы допускают, но и потому что элиты не способствуют росту как основной цели экономической политики. Вместо этого, олигархи устанавливают правила с целью максимально увеличить свой собственный доход и богатство. Такие меры преобладают в больших частях Латинской Америки, Арабского Ближнего Востока и Африки.

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