nineLe bon capitalisme et le mauvais capitalisme

Lorsque le Mur de Berlin est tombé en 1989, nombreux furent ceux à penser que le « capitalisme » avait gagné et que le « communisme » avait perdu. Mais bien que le « capitalisme » - défini comme un système économique basé sur la propriété privée des biens de production – l’a clairement emporté, il existe de grandes différences entre les quelques 200 pays qui le pratiquent aujourd’hui sous une forme ou une autre.

Nous pouvons diviser les économies capitalistes en quatre grandes catégories. Bien que de nombreuses économies soient à cheval sur plusieurs catégories, la plupart tombent principalement dans l’une ou l’autre. La classification suivante permet de comprendre pourquoi certaines économies ont une croissance plus rapide que d’autres.

Le capitalisme oligarchique se caractérise par une forte concentration du pouvoir et de l’argent aux mains d’un petit nombre. C’est la pire forme de capitalisme, non seulement par les inégalités extrêmes de revenus et de richesses qu’il engendre, mais également parce que les élites ne font pas de la croissance l’objectif central de la politique économique. Les oligarques définissent essentiellement des règles pour optimiser au maximum leurs propres richesses. Ce type de capitalisme est  courant en Amérique latine, dans le Moyen-Orient arabe et en Afrique. 

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