好的资本主义,坏的资本主义

许多人认为1989年柏林墙倒塌的时候,“资本主义”已经赢得了意识形态冷战的胜利,而“共产主义”则遭到了惨败。但是,尽管“资本主义”——定义为建立在财产私有制基础上的经济体系——显然已经获得了长足的发展,但在目前以某种形式实施资本主义的将近200个国家中仍然存在许多不同。

我们认为应该把资本主义经济分为四个大类。尽管许多经济体横跨若干大类,但多数经济体都符合其中一类的基本特征。下面的分类法有助于解释为什么有些经济体比其他经济体发展得更快。

当权力和金钱高度集中于少数人手中的时候,就符合了寡头资本主义的特征。它是资本主义最低级的形式,不仅因为上述经济体对收入和财富的极度不平等视而不见,而且因为精英决策人物并不将促进发展作为经济政策的核心目标。恰恰相反,寡头制定经济政策以自身收入和财富的最大化为目的。这样的情况在拉丁美洲、中东阿拉伯和非洲的绝大部分地区非常普遍。

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