Ah, que la capitalisme se vend bien !

Pour que ce qui va suivre reste clair aux yeux de nos lecteurs, il me paraît nécessaire de rappeler et de préciser quelques concepts et quelques choix.

L’économie de marché est née progressivement voici trois ou quatre mille ans sinon plus. Il n’y a pas d’inventeur connu, comme pour l’agriculture ou l’écriture. Elle se définit par le rapport direct entre le vendeur et l’acheteur, ce dernier étant libre d’acheter ce qu’il veut quand il veut à qui il veut et libre même de discuter le prix, si ce prix n’est pas le résultat de l’évidence que tous les vendeurs proposent à peu près le même. Il résulte de ces caractéristiques que l’économie de marché traduit l’enracinement de la liberté dans la matérialité de la vie quotidienne. On est pas sorti de là, les tentations pour se débarrasser de l’économie de  marché ont toutes échoué, les plus vigoureuses ont fini dans le totalitarisme et le monde entier a salué chaleureusement le choix courageux des pays d’Europe centrale qui furent communistes, de rallier l’économie de marché que la social-démocratie internationale, à la seule exception du parti français avait ralliée dès 1946.

Pendant des millénaires, le marché fut une affaire d’individus : artisans et commerçants face aux consommateurs. Le capitalisme est le passage du marché aux grandes unités. Machine à vapeur et électricité permettent de faire travailler beaucoup d’hommes ensemble et la société anonyme permet de rassembler beaucoup d’épargnants ensemble qui deviennent des capitalistes. Cela a moins de trois siècles.

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