On n’arrête pas la mondialisation

LONDON – Dans un état des lieux de la mondialisation en 2011, dressé récemment par le Financial Times, le journaliste Gideon Rachman a fait observer que “le président des Etats-Unis Barack Obama, lors d’une visite en Inde effectuée il y a peu, avait informé ses hôtes qu’à propos de mondialisation,  la controverse s’était ravivée à l’Ouest,” qui développait, vis-à-vis d’elle, “un phénomène de rejet.”

Mais l’alarmisme de Rachman est sans fondement. Cette crainte de la mondialisation à l’Ouest n’est pas nouvelle. Dans les économies développées, cela fait un quart de siècle au moins qu’intellectuels pertinents, syndicats et partis écologiques expriment leur anti-mondialisme.

Historiquement, ce n’est pas à l’Ouest qu’apparaît la crainte de la mondialisation, mais à l’Est. Après la Seconde guerre mondiale, l’Ouest a balayé tout obstacle devant le commerce et l’investissement et s’est appliqué à mettre un terme aux contrôles des changes et à faciliter la convertibilité des devises. Ce que l’on a parfois nommé l’ordre libéral de l’économie internationale s’est inscrit à l’ordre du jour et l’opinion publique s’est rangée derrière lui.

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