La cacophonie du monde

PARIS – Dans son ouvrage phare intitulé Diplomatie, Henry Kissinger décrit, de manière peut-être un peu trop idyllique, le système international d’équilibre des pouvoirs qui, à la suite du Congrès de Vienne en 1814-1815, aboutit à ce que l’on appela le « Concert européen. » Comme l’explique Kissinger, il régnait au lendemain des guerres napoléoniennes « non seulement un équilibre physique, mais également un équilibre moral. Pouvoir et justice étaient en parfaite harmonie. » Un concert qui prit certes fin dans la cacophonie, avec l’explosion de la Première Guerre mondiale à l’été 1914.

Aujourd’hui, après avoir connu la brutalité de la première moitié du XXe siècle, la Guerre froide et son contexte de bipolarité, ainsi qu’une brève période d’hyperpuissance des États-Unis après 1989, le monde est de nouveau en quête d’un nouvel ordre international. Peut-on espérer voire ce concert des nations européennes qui exista autrefois s’étendre au monde entier ?

Il semble malheureusement plus probable que nous connaissions une véritable cacophonie internationale. Ceci s’explique par une raison évidente, qui n’est autre que l’absence d’un arbitre mondial reconnu et soutenu. Les États-Unis, qui incarnent le mieux le pouvoir ultime, sont de moins en moins désireux – et de moins en moins capables – de jouer ce rôle. Quant aux Nations Unies, symbole absolu des principes de l’ordre mondial, elles sont aujourd’hui plus divisées et plus impuissantes que jamais.

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