Mundialización y antiamericanismo

Los sentimientos antiamericanos están aumentando en todo el mundo. Los demócratas americanos dicen que las políticas del Presidente Bush han dilapidado el atractivo de los Estados Unidos. Los republicanos replican que los Estados Unidos están condenados a inspirar resentimiento por su tamaño y su asociación con la mundialización. Según dicen, el antiamericanismo persistirá, porque algunos ven a los Estados Unidos como una amenaza cultural. Creo que esas opiniones carecen de perspectiva histórica.

Al contrario de la opinión establecida, la mundialización no está homogenizando ni americanizando las culturas del mundo. Aunque los Estados Unidos están en la vanguardia de la actual revolución de la información, que está creando muchas semejanzas en los hábitos culturales y sociales (como, por ejemplo, los de ver la televisión o utilizar la red Internet) que se atribuye a la americanización, correlación no es lo mismo que causalidad.

Para ver por qué, imaginemos un país que hubiera introducido las computadoras y las comunicaciones a un ritmo rápido en un mundo en el que no existieran los Estados Unidos. Igualmente habrían sido de esperar cambios culturales y sociales importantes de semejante modernización. Naturalmente, como los Estados Unidos existen y están en la vanguardia de la revolución de la información, hay un grado de americanización, pero es probable que disminuya a lo largo del siglo XXI, a medida que se propague la tecnología y las culturas locales se modernicen a su respectivo modo.

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