Mondialisation et anti-américanisme

Les sentiments anti-américains se développent partout dans le monde. Les Démocrates américains déclarent que les politiques du président Bush ont dégradé l'attrait de l'Amérique. Les Républicains répondent que l'Amérique est condamnée à être mal aimée du fait de sa taille et de son association avec la mondialisation. Selon eux, l'anti-américanisme persistera parce que certains perçoivent l'Amérique comme une menace culturelle. Pour ma part, je pense que ces positions manquent de perspectives historiques.

Contrairement aux idées reçues, la mondialisation n'est pas un facteur d'homogénéisation et d'américanisation des cultures mondiales. Bien que les Etats-Unis soient aux premières lignes de la révolution informationnelle actuelle, qui permet de développer des similarités de comportements culturels et sociaux (telles que l'écoute de la télévision ou l'utilisation d'Internet) qui sont attribuées à l'américanisation, même si la corrélation n'est pas la causalité.

Pour comprendre pourquoi, imaginons un pays qui introduirait informatique et communication avec rapidité dans un monde où l'Amérique n'existerait pas. On s'attendrait quand même à des changements culturels et sociaux d'importance du fait d'une telle modernisation. Bien sûr, à cause de l'existence des Etats-Unis et de leur présence à l'avant-garde de la révolution des NTIC, il existe un certain degré d'américanisation, qui diminuera probablement au cours du vingt-et-unième siècle grâce à la pénétration technologique et à la modernisation des cultures locales à leur propre rythme.

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