La Tecnologia e la Sfida dell’Occupazione

MILANO – Le nuove tecnologie di vario genere, insieme alla globalizzazione, influenzano potentemente le diverse opportunità lavorative delle persone dei paesi avanzati e, allo stesso modo, di coloro che vivono in realtà in via di sviluppo – per qualsiasi livello di istruzione. Le innovazioni tecnologiche non solo determinano una riduzione del numero di posti di lavoro di routine (lavori a procedura costante), ma causano anche cambiamenti nelle catene e nelle reti di approvvigionamento globali, il che comporta la rilocalizzazione dei posti di lavoro di routine - e, sempre più, dei posti di lavoro non di routine a vari livelli di specializzazione - nel settore dei beni commerciabili di molte economie.

In che modo, allora, i politici dovrebbero affrontare le nuove e difficili sfide per l'occupazione (e, quindi, per la distribuzione del reddito e della ricchezza), soprattutto nelle economie sviluppate? Da recenti ricerche, abbiamo imparato una serie di cose interessanti sulle modalità in cui l'evoluzione della struttura economica colpisce l'occupazione.

I settori commerciabili delle economie avanzate non generano aumenti reali netti dell'occupazione da almeno due decenni, mentre i posti di lavoro che hanno creato sono concentrati nelle fasce di reddito elevato e di istruzione superiore, con calo dell'occupazione nella fascia media e bassa di reddito ed istruzione. La crescita dell’occupazione in servizi destinati alla fascia alta dei consumatori è compensata dalla contrazione dei settori produttivi ad elevata intensità di occupazione delle catene di fornitura.

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