技术和就业挑战

米兰—各种新技术和全球化一道,正在大大影响发达国家和发展中国家各个教育层次的个人就业选择范围。技术创新不但减少了常规工作数量,也引起了全球供应链和网络的改变,从而导致许多国家可贸易部门的常规工作以及存在各种技能要求的非常规工作的重新分配。

那么,决策者——特别是发达国家决策者——应该如何面对这一新的就业大挑战(以及反过来对收入和财富分配的挑战)呢?我们可以从当前的研究中得到许多关于经济结构的演化如何影响就业的有趣结论。

发达国家可贸易方面至少已经有20年没有产生任何实质就业增长了,即使创造了就业岗位,也集中在高收入、高学历层次,而中低收入和学历就业在减少。高端服务业就业岗位的增加与制造业供应链高就业要素的衰减相匹配。

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