Donner jusqu’à guérir

Dans mon nouvel ouvrage The End of Poverty , je montre comment l’on peut mettre fin à l’extrême pauvreté d'ici 2025, mais seulement si le monde riche tient sa promesse d'aider les pays les plus pauvres. Pour prospérer et pour encourager l’investissement du secteur privé nécessaire à la croissance à long terme, une économie a besoin de systèmes de santé et d’éducation opérationnels, d’investissements dans la gestion de l’eau et des substances nutritives du sol, et d’une infrastructure de base comme l’électricité et le transport motorisé. Les pays les plus pauvres, même ceux qui sont bien gouvernés, manquent toutefois des ressources qui leur permettraient de financer ces investissements.

Le manque d’assistance étrangère adéquate constitue l’une des plus grandes hontes de notre planète et les Etats-Unis se sont montrés les plus traînards de tous. Il est urgent qu’ils prennent conscience des réalités mondiales et qu’ils tiennent leurs engagements.

La promesse la plus célèbre faite par les pays riches consistait à apporter aux pays les plus pauvres une aide équivalente à au moins 0,7 % de leur PNB. L’engagement a été pris 44 ans auparavant, en 1961, lorsque l’Assemblée générale des Nations Unies a convenu que l'assistance étrangère devrait augmenter considérablement « afin d’atteindre dès que possible environ 1 % des revenus nationaux combinés des pays économiquement avancés ». A cette époque, l’assistance étrangère avoisinait 0,5 % du revenu des pays riches.

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