Lateinamerikas Weg aus dem Stillstand

Eines der größten Rätsel der Weltwirtschaft ist die schlechte Wirtschaftsleistung Lateinamerikas. Seit den frühen 1980er Jahren gab es in Lateinamerika wenig Fortschritte. In weiten Teilen der Region stiegen die Pro-Kopf-Einkommen nur langsam (wenn überhaupt) und eine große Krise jagte die andere. Man probierte es mit vielen Strategien, vor allem mit Handelsliberalisierung, der Privatisierung ineffizienter Staatsbetriebe und mit Haushaltsreformen. Aber irgendetwas hält Lateinamerika zurück.

Das Fehlen eines dynamischen Wachstums ist angesichts der vielen Vorteile und der sozialen Erfolgsgeschichten Lateinamerikas umso verblüffender. Bodenschätze sind ebenso wie fruchtbares Ackerland im Überfluss vorhanden. Die Gesundheitsversorgung funktioniert einigermaßen und alle lateinamerikanischen Länder konnten Erfolge im Kampf gegen den Analphabetismus verbuchen. Die Alphabetisierungsrate beträgt unter der erwachsenen Bevölkerung 90 % und mehr.

Außerdem sind die Fruchtbarkeitsraten stark bis auf ein Niveau gefallen, auf dem sie sich wahrscheinlich in vielen Ländern in den nächsten Jahrzehnten einpendeln werden. Die Stellung der Frauen hat sich verbessert und Mädchen haben die gleichen Bildungschancen. In vielen Ländern besuchen schon mehr Mädchen als Buben die Bildungseinrichtungen. Lateinamerika mag zwar für seine „Macho-Kultur" bekannt sein, aber die Teilnahme der Frauen am Arbeitsmarkt steigt und sie erreichen hohe politische Ämter und gesellschaftliche Positionen.

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