La main visible de la prospérité économique

FRANCFORT – L'Allemagne a résisté à la crise financière beaucoup mieux que la plupart de ses voisins. Considéré comme l'homme malade de l'Europe jusqu'en 1999, le pays possède aujourd'hui la plus forte économie du continent, qui représente environ un quart de ses exportations. Son taux de chômage légèrement inférieur à 5%, représente la moitié de la moyenne européenne. Le budget fédéral est équilibré pour la première fois en une décennie.

Mais ce serait une erreur de croire que la performance économique de l'Allemagne justifie ses prises de décisions politiques. En fait, la domination économique actuelle de l'Allemagne s'est construite sur un cadre politique qui se tient en opposition directe par rapport à celui défendu par l'ancien Chancelier Ludwig Erhard, le père de son « miracle économique » qui a fait suite à la Seconde Guerre mondiale.

Au lieu du soi-disant ordolibéralisme d'Erhard (dans lequel l'État jette les bases d'une économie de marché qui fonctionne en gérant activement l'environnement juridique), la stratégie économique menée par le gouvernement de la Chancelière Angela Merkel a été aléatoire, conduite davantage par l'opportunisme politique que par une philosophie sous-jacente. L'Allemagne serait sage de ne pas considérer sa réussite économique comme allant de soi. A l'heure où l'incertitude économique et politique est de plus en plus grande, les principes directeurs d'Erhard sont plus importants que jamais.

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