La reunificación alemana y la nueva Europa

PARIS – Empecé a escribir esta columna poco después de un aniversario notable. El 3 de octubre de 1990 fue la fecha en que se aplicó una asombrosa decisión tomada poco más de un mes antes. El 23 de agosto, la Cámara de Representantes de Alemania Oriental, la Volkskammer, aprobó la adhesión unilateral de los Länder alemanes orientales a la Constitución de Alemania Occidental. El artículo 23 de la Ley Básica de Alemania Occidental lo permitía, pero no se consultó ni al gobierno ni al parlamento de este país.

Los términos de la reunificación se definieron posteriormente en un tratado que se firmó en Berlín el 31 de agosto de 1990 y que fue ratificado por los parlamentos de ambas Alemanias el 20 de septiembre. El Tratado de Paz entre los dos Estados alemanes y los cuatro aliados triunfadores se firmó en Moscú ese mismo día, y la reunificación se proclamó oficialmente el 3 de octubre.

Estos acontecimientos, forjados por tres actores, sacudieron al mundo – y lo cambiaron para siempre. El primer actor fue Mikhail Gorbachev, quien aprobó la medida –la apertura de la frontera entre Austria y Hungría—que desencadenó la serie de sucesos que condujeron a la reunificación. También fue Gorbachev quien declaró que las fuerzas soviéticas no intervendrían para apoyar a los regímenes comunistas en problemas en contra de la voluntad de sus pueblos–una declaración dirigida directamente a Alemania Oriental.

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