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Réaliser le potentiel de la présidence de la Chine au G20

NEW YORK – Dans le cadre des préparatifs du sommet du G20 en septembre prochain à Hangzhou en Chine, de nombreux débats ont porté sur le resserrement de la coopération macroéconomique internationale et la réforme du système monétaire international. Même s’il est vrai que ce n’est pas la première fois que ces sujets apparaissent — ainsi, en 2011, la France a mis de l’avant une réforme monétaire, qui a été mise de côté par la crise de la zone euro — le moment est peut-être plus propice à des progrès réels.

L’économie mondiale contemporaine est jonchée d’incertitudes. Des données contraires à la réalité ont soulevé récemment des questionnements sur la vigueur de l’économie des États-Unis. Pour ce qui est du Japon, les statistiques sont encore plus incohérentes. L’Union européenne se retrouve devant une relance encore modeste, mais aussi devant l’éventualité de perdre le Royaume-Uni comme membre.

Au même moment, les économies émergentes connaissent un ralentissement prononcé. La situation de la Chine, en particulier, présente des risques importants, beaucoup d’analystes appréhendant un ralentissement plus marqué que prévu initialement. Ces appréhensions ont poussé de nombreux joueurs à sortir leurs fonds du pays, exerçant une forte pression à la baisse sur le renminbi.

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