Ressourcen: Vom Fluch zum Segen

KAMPALA – Die Neuentdeckungen natürlicher Ressourcen in mehreren afrikanischen Staaten – darunter Ghana, Uganda, Tansania und Mosambik – werfen eine wichtige Frage auf: Sind diese unerwarteten Vorkommen ein Segen, der Wohlstand und Hoffnung bringt, oder ein politischer und wirtschaftlicher Fluch, wie es für so viele Länder der Fall war?

Länder mit Ressourcenreichtum haben sich in der Vergangenheit durchschnittlich noch schlechter entwickelt als solche ohne Bodenschätze. Sie sind langsamer gewachsen, und die Ungleichheit war größer – genau anders herum, als man erwarten würde. Immerhin würden die Ressourcen durch hohe Besteuerung nicht verschwinden, also könnten die Länder die Einnahmen daraus eigentlich zur Finanzierung von Ausbildung, Gesundheitsfürsorge, Entwicklung und Umverteilung einsetzen.

In den Wirtschafts- und Politikwissenschaften wurden viele Bücher geschrieben, um diesen “Ressourcenfluch” zu erklären, und es wurden zivilgesellschaftliche Gruppen (wie Revenue Watch und die Initiative für Transparenz in der Rohstoffwirtschaft) gegründet, um dagegen anzugehen. Drei der Gründe für diesen Fluch sind gut bekannt:

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