新自由主义的终结

    华盛顿特区--里根和撒切尔夫人在二十世纪八十年代开启的自由市场时代经常被反对者称为“新自由主义”。如今这一时代结束了。这一意识形态浪潮随着当前的金融市场危机而崩溃,但是其衰退却是姗姗来迟。当美国领导人最近几年继续在新自由主义乘风破浪之际,世界其他大部分地方已经隔岸观火了。

    发展中国家一度是新自由主义忠实的崇拜者,而正是在这些国家开始了对新自由主义的不满。拉丁美洲国家在九十年代实行自由市场政策。到了本世纪早些时候,随着新一轮的左翼倾向领导人掌权,这些国家拒绝这一新自由主义。俄国在九十年代实行市场主导的改革。到了二十一世纪转向有管理的国家资本主义,其“寡头”被迫屈服于国家控制。

    结果,美国、欧盟委员会以及各多边发展银行在全世界推进自由市场观念和政策中越发孤立。日益严重的金融危机进一步削弱了它们的立场。毕竟,美国或者西方的多边机构现在如何能够再鼓吹银行私有化呢?

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