Od Karla Poppera ke Karlu Roveovi – a zpět

NEW YORK – George Orwell ve svém románě 1984 mrazivě popsal totalitní režim, v němž má komunikaci pod kontrolou ministerstvo pravdy a disidenty perzekvuje politická policie. Spojené státy zůstávají demokracií, již ovládá ústava a právní řád a jež má pluralistická média, a přece existují znepokojující známky toho, že se tu uchytily propagandistické metody popsané Orwellem.

Ba techniky klamu prošly od Orwellovy doby rozsáhlým vývojem. Mnohé z těchto technik se rozvinuly ve spojitosti s reklamou a marketingem komerčních výrobků a služeb a pak byly přizpůsobeny potřebám politiky. Jejich charakteristickým rysem je to, že je lze pořídit za peníze. V poslední době k dalšímu zvýšení účinnosti technik klamu přispěl výzkum lidského vnímání, takže se objevili političtí profesionálové, kteří se zaměřují na „dosahování výsledků“.

Tito profesionálové jsou pyšní na své výkony a snad dokonce požívají respektu americké veřejnosti, která obdivuje úspěch, ať už jej bylo dosaženo jakkoliv. Tento fakt vyvolává pochybnosti nad konceptem otevřené společnosti Karla Poppera, který se zakládal na poznatku, že vzhledem k tomu, že dokonalé vědění není dosažitelné, lepší porozumění skutečnosti si můžeme osvojit oddaností kritickému myšlení.

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