卡尔·波普和卡尔·罗夫之间

纽约--奥威尔在其小说《1984年》中冷竣地描写了一个独裁主权中,所有的通信都受到真相部的控制,而异议人士则受到政治警察的迫害。美国依旧是由宪法和法治管辖的民主国家,拥有多样性的媒体,但是还是有令人不安的迹象表明奥威尔所描绘的宣传手段已经在这里生根。

确实,自从奥威尔的时代以来,欺骗伎俩经历了巨大的改进。许多这些伎俩都是与商业产品和服务的广告和市场营销有关而得到开发并适用于政治。它们有所区分的特点是它们可以用钱来买到。近来,认知科学使得欺骗伎俩更为有效,产生了一些专门“取得成效”的政治专业人士。

这些专业人士以其取得的成就而自豪,而且甚至可能得到崇拜成功而不问成功之道的美国公众的尊敬。这一事实让人们对卡尔波普的开放社会的概念产生怀疑。尽管完善的知识是无法得到的,但是我们可以通过思辩而获得对现实更好的理解。开放社会就是建立在这一认识基础之上。

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