Asia se Traslada de la Crisis Financiera a la Crisis Democrática

JAKARTA: La crisis política ha remplazado a la crisis financiera en el Asia Sudoriental. El presidente Estrada de las Filipinas, quien nunca logró tener control total de su posición, fue removido de su puesto por un frío golpe de estado apoyado por la decisión popular. Ahora el presidente Wahid de Indonesia se enfrenta a un posible juicio; el presidente de Taiwán quizá corra la misma suerte. El Primer Ministro de Tailandia asumió el puesto enmedio del escándalo. El escenario político en Malasia parece estar en el momento más agitado de los últimos veinte años.

Los años de apogeo de Asia Sudoriental parecen haberse terminado, pero esto no significa que hayan desaparecido por siempre, pues las causas de esta inestabilidad no son desconocidas. La turbulencia política, en efecto, tiene las mismas raíces que las tormentas financieras del pasado: instituciones que no son adecuadas, no son sanas y no se han desarrollado por completo. A menos que se trabaje con estas grietas institucionales, las sociedades asiáticas no volverán al camino correcto.

Claro, las finanzas y la democracia no son hermanas gemelas. Pero sí hay paralelismos: sin las verificaciones y los balances de instituciones locales sanas los impulsos globales de liberalización política agitan a los regímenes que antes eran autoritarios tanto como la globalización desarmó a las instituciones financieras débiles. Sin duda, la crisis económica asiática de 1997-1998 puede brindar importantes lecciones que son aplicables al tumulto político de la actualidad.

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