Paul Lachine

Friedman hat Keynes ergänzt

Der berühmteste und einflussreichste amerikanische Ökonom des letzten Jahrhunderts ist im November gestorben. Milton Friedman war nicht der berühmteste und einflussreichste Ökonom der Welt – diese Ehre gebührt John Maynard Keynes. Aber Milton Friedman wurde nur knapp geschlagen.

Aus einer Perspektive betrachtet war Milton Friedman der herausragende Schüler und Nachfolger von Keynes und vervollständigte dessen Werk. Keynes gab in seiner Allgemeinen Theorie der Beschäftigung, des Zinses und des Geldes den Rahmen vor, den heutzutage fast alle Makroökonomen verwenden. Dieser Rahmen basiert auf Ausgaben und Nachfrage, den bestimmenden Faktoren der Ausgabenkomponenten, der Liquiditätspräferenztheorie kurzfristiger Zinssätze und der Voraussetzung, dass die Regierung strategisch aber wirkungsvoll in die Wirtschaft eingreift, um diese im Gleichgewicht zu halten und Extreme wie Depression und Überhitzung zu verhindern. Friedman drückte es so aus: “Wir sind jetzt alle Keynesianer.”

Keynes’ Theorie war jedoch unvollständig: Seine Theorie drehte sich um Beschäftigung, Zins und Geld. Es war keine Theorie der Preise. Friedman fügte Keynes’ Rahmen eine Theorie der Preise und Inflation hinzu, basierend auf der Idee der natürlichen Arbeitslosenquote und den Grenzen der staatlichen Politik bei der Stabilisierung der Wirtschaft im Rahmen ihres langfristigen Wachstumstrends – Grenzen jenseits derer Intervention unkontrollierbare und zerstörerische Inflation auslösen würde.

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