Libre-échange ou avantages pour les puissants ?

Alors que le Congrès des Etats-Unis commence à examiner l’accord de libre-échange avec la République dominicaine et l’Amérique centrale (DR-CAFTA), un combat de titans devrait opposer les partisans du libre-échange à ceux du protectionnisme. Pourtant, cela ne doit pas dissimuler la vérité qui se cache derrière ce traité : il s’agit plus d’intérêts particuliers que de libre-échange. Le DR-CAFTA parvient en effet simultanément à escroquer les travailleurs de six pays pauvres et à mettre les Américains dans une situation dangereuse.

Certes, le développement du commerce offre de belles perspectives pour le développement et la démocratie. Mais le DR-CAFTA énonce des règles au profit de quelques-uns et aux dépens du bien-être de la majorité. Ironie du sort, le traité limite même la concurrence pour protéger certains intérêts puissants, allant ainsi à l’encontre des principes fondamentaux du libre-échange.

Pour les compagnies pharmaceutiques américaines par exemple, cet accord prolonge la période d’exclusivité des marques, en retardant l’arrivée des médicaments génériques sur le marché et en limitant donc la concurrence. En Amérique centrale, cela signifierait une envolée des prix des médicaments, qui pèserait lourdement sur les budgets et les systèmes de santé, et reviendrait pour beaucoup à une condamnation à mort.

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