Jon Krause

La revolución judicial de Francia

PARÍS – Unas nuevas e importantes siglas han entrado en el léxico político francés: QPC, cuyo significado, bastante serio, es “Resolución preliminar y prioritaria sobre la cuestión de la constitucionalidad”. Conforme a la QPC, que formó parte de las reformas constitucionales que Francia aplicó en julio de 2008, ahora cualquier ciudadano involucrado en actuaciones judiciales puede impugnar la constitucionalidad de una disposición legislativa.

Se trata de una innovación de gran alcance. Francia se ha caracterizado durante mucho tiempo por la filosofía de Jean-Jacques Rousseau, que situaba la ley –la expresión de la “voluntad general”– en la cima absoluta de la jerarquía de las normas judiciales. A consecuencia de ello, ha predominado una verdadera alergia a juzgar la constitucionalidad de cualquier ley.

Hasta la Constitución de Charles de Gaulle, de 1958, no se permitió ni siquiera una evaluación limitada de una ley por el Conseil Constitutionnel (“Consejo Constitucional”) y aun entonces sólo con enormes precauciones. De hecho, el Consejo Constitucional hacía sus evaluaciones a priori, un mes después de la aprobación de la ley y sólo cuatro representantes públicos podían iniciar un examen: el Presidente, el Primer Ministro y los Presidentes de la Asamblea Nacional y del Senado.

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