Französische Identitätspolitik

Eine große Überraschung des gegenwärtigen Präsidentschaftswahlkampfs in Frankreich ist, wie die Frage der „nationalen Identität“ in den Mittelpunkt der politischen Debatte gerückt ist. Im Präsidentschaftswahlkampf 1995 waren Arbeitslosigkeit und soziale Trennlinien die beherrschenden Themen. Im Jahr 2002 dominierte das Thema Sicherheit. Diesmal allerdings haben die drei Hauptkandidaten – Nicolas Sarkozy, Ségolène Royal und François Bayrou – dem Wahlkampf ein gänzlich neues Erscheinungsbild gegeben.

So schlägt Sarkozy beispielsweise die Schaffung eines Ministeriums für Einwanderung und nationale Identität vor. Auch Royal, die zwar peinlich genau den Unterschied zwischen Nation und Nationalismus wahrt, rückt vom alten sozialistischen Herzstück, der Internationalen, ab, macht sich stattdessen für La Marseillaise stark und schlägt vor, dass alle Staatsbürger am Nationalfeiertag die französische Flagge hissen sollten. Bayrou kritisiert die „nationalistische Obsession“ seiner Mitbewerber, aber auch er unterstützt die Abschaffung des Jus soli (das Recht auf Staatsbürgerschaft nach dem Geburtsortprinzip) auf der französischen Insel Mayotte, aufgrund des massenhaften Zustroms schwangerer Frauen auf diese Insel.

Der Führer der Rechten, Jean-Marie Le Pen, meint, er sei mit dieser Entwicklung sehr glücklich. Tatsächlich ist eine Debatte über nationale Identität nichts Neues. Das Problem daran ist, dass die französische Identität schon immer aus widersprüchlichen und manchmal gegensätzlichen Elementen bestand wie Frankreichs katholische und säkulare Traditionen oder seine Revolutionsideologie neben dem Hang zum Konservativen und die unterschiedlichen kulturellen Auffassungen der Landbewohner und der Arbeiter.

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