法国的身份政治

目前正在法国进行的总统竞选中的一大意外是“民族身份”如何进入了政治辩论的最前沿。在1995年的总统竞选中,主要论题是失业和社会分化。在2002年,安全则是重中之重。但这一届的三位总统候选人—尼古拉•塞尔科奇, 赛格琳•罗亚尔, 和弗朗索瓦•贝鲁—却令竞选活动呈现出全然不同的情况。

比如,塞尔科奇就提议组建一个“移民与民族身份部”。同样,虽然罗亚尔谨慎地保持着民族和民族主义之间的泾渭分明,但她也正与社会党唱诵的“国际歌”渐行渐远,反而捍卫起“马赛曲”,并建议所有的公民都应该在国庆日悬挂法国国旗。贝鲁虽然批评其竞争对手的“民族主义痴迷”,但却支持取消法属Mayotte岛居民的 jus soli (即通过出生获得法国国籍的权利)。其原因是大量的外籍孕妇涌入该岛。

极右派领导人Jean-Marie Le Pen则表示对这种变化感到高兴。的确,关于民族身份的辩论并不新鲜了。问题是法国身份从来就是由相互矛盾、甚至有时相互敌对的元素构成的,比如法国的天主教和世俗传统、它的革命意识形态和保守倾向,以及关于农村和工人阶级公民的文化观点。

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