Paul Lachine

Quattro mosse per il risanamento fiscale americano

WASHINGTON, DC – Gli Stati Uniti hanno un notevole deficit di bilancio, che quest’anno potrebbe aggirarsi intorno a 1,3 trilioni di dollari (10% del PIL), e le previsioni di lungo periodo sono preoccupanti. Secondo il Congressional Budget Office (CBO, un organo imparziale leader nel settore), la Social Security, insieme a Medicare, Medicaid e ad altri programmi di assistenza sanitaria arriveranno a consumare quasi tutte le entrate fiscali entro il 2035.

Gli USA possono finanziare tali deficit nel breve periodo – in effetti, i tassi di interesse sui titoli di stato USA sono recentemente scesi a livelli record. Ma senza un impegno serio in tema di risanamento fiscale, si prospettano problemi gravi, sia per gli USA che per l’economia mondiale. Pertanto, gli Stati Uniti devono urgentemente mettere in atto quattro importanti mosse.

La prima riguarda un’ampia riforma fiscale volta ad allineare la politica fiscale ad auspicabili incentivi economici. In particolare, gli USA dovrebbe considerare l’introduzione di un’imposta sul valore aggiunto (IVA), ampiamente utilizzata in altri paesi industrializzati. Imponendo una tassa sul consumo per ogni fase della catena di produzione, l’America potrebbe ridurre i sovraconsumi che hanno contribuito ad alimentare la recente bolla del credito, e incoraggiare, invece, i risparmi e gli investimenti. Senza dimenticare che un’IVA è regressiva, sebbene possa essere resa progressiva combinandola con un ribasso parziale o esentando i beni di prima necessità.

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