Obama Latin America Summit Panama Liu Bin/ZumaPress

Latinoamérica y Estados Unidos: Entre Kennan y Obama

BUENOS AIRES – El célebre diplomático y estratega estadounidense George F. Kennan es recordado como el artífice de la “doctrina de la contención” que se convirtió en la piedra angular de la política exterior y de defensa de Estados Unidos para librar la Guerra Fría. Pero Kennan también fue uno de los principales arquitectos de otra gran estrategia: el enfoque de la “dominación y la disciplina” hacia América Latina. Usualmente menos discutida, esta última estrategia ha sobrevivido durante mucho tiempo más allá de la contienda Este-Oeste. Afortunadamente, esto podría estar cambiando, por fin, gracias al Presidente Barack Obama.

En 1950–cuatro años después de enviar el famoso Largo Telegrama de 8000 palabras al Secretario de Estado, George Marshall, detallando sus puntos de vista sobre la política de la Unión Soviética y la de Estados Unidos hacia Moscú–Kennan envió otro extenso Memorándum al Secretario de Estado Dean Acheson. Esta vez, argumentó que Estados Unidos necesitaba adoptar una postura más severa en regiones con presencia de simpatizantes comunistas. El informe, que Kennan produjo después de una gira por América Latina, incluía una serie de enunciaciones notables sobre la región.

Kennan afirmó que una particular combinación de “naturaleza física y comportamiento personal” en América Latina había producido un singular “ambiente infeliz y exasperante por la conducta de la vida humana.” Los impedimentos para el progreso en la región, Kennan observó, fueron “escritos en la sangre humana y en los trazos de la geografía”, y que, en consecuencia, las soluciones que se habían propuesto eran “débiles y desalentadoras”. Esto, según él, había producido un “reconocimiento subconsciente del fracaso de los esfuerzos colectivos”; lo que a su turno se manifestó “en un egocentrismo exagerado".

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