Продовольствие для всех

БРЮССЕЛЬ. Что должна сделать «Большая двадцатка», чтобы подготовить нас к противостоянию продовольственным кризисам сейчас и в будущем? Председатель Всемирного банка Роберт Зеллик недавно перечислил девять мер, которые «Большой двадцатке» следует принять в рамках нынешнего председательства Франции. Они варьируются от улучшения информации о хлебных запасах и разработки более совершенных методов прогнозов погоды, до укрепления систем социальной защиты бедных и оказания помощи малым фермерам в получении выгоды от тендеров гуманитарных покупателей, таких как Всемирная продовольственная программа.

Хотя и приветствуемые, эти меры направлены только на симптомы слабости глобальной продовольственной системы, оставляя без внимания причины кризисов. Они могут смягчить последствия пика цен, но они недостаточны, чтобы избежать повторения потрясений. Однако их можно успешно избежать, если «Большая двадцатка» будет работать по восьми приоритетным направлениям.

Во-первых, «Большая двадцатка» должна поддержать способность стран обеспечивать себя продовольствием. С начала 1990-х годов счета многих бедных стран за продовольствие увеличились в пять или шесть раз, что объясняется не только ростом численности населения, но также и их ориентированностью на экспортное сельское хозяйство. Отсутствие инвестиций в сельское хозяйство, которое кормит местные общины, делает эти страны уязвимыми перед международными ценовыми шоками, а также волатильностью обменного курса.

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