Justicia internacional defectuosa para el Sudán

Quienes siguen de cerca los acontecimientos de Darfur saben muy bien que el Presidente del Sudán, Omar Hassan al-Bashir, encabeza un grupo de dirigentes políticos y militares responsables de delitos graves y en gran escala contra ciudadanos sudaneses que las fuerzas militares del país, con la ayuda de grupos paramilitares y milicias, cometen todos los días en esa región. Esos ciudadanos sólo son culpables de pertenecer a las tres tribus (Fur, Masalit y Zaghawa) de las que procedían los rebeldes que tomaron las armas contra el Gobierno hace unos años.

Así, pues, cualquier medida encaminada a pedir responsabilidades a los dirigentes del Sudán por sus crímenes es digna del mayor beneplácito. No obstante, la decisión de Luis Moreno Ocampo, el fiscal del Tribunal Penal Internacional, de pedir una orden judicial de detención contra al-Bashir es incomprensible, por tres razones.

En primer lugar, si Moreno Ocampo se proponía conseguir la detención de al-Bashir, podría haber expedido una petición sellada y haber solicitado a los jueces del TPI que expidieran una orden de detención sellada, que sólo se haría pública una vez que al-Bashir viajara al extranjero. La jurisdicción del Tribunal en relación con los crímenes de Darfur está establecida conforme a una decisión vinculante del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas, lo que significa que incluso los Estados que no son partes en el estatuto del TPI deben ejecutar las órdenes y mandamientos judiciales del Tribunal. En cambio, como se ha hecho pública la petición de mandamiento judicial, al-Bashir –suponiendo que los jueces acepten la petición– puede simplemente abstenerse de viajar al extranjero y evitar, así, la detención.

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