国家繁荣的关键

发自纽约——在历史上许多最为成功的经济改革过程中,明智的国家都会借鉴其他国家的成功政策并使之适应本国国情。在经济发展的历史长河中,18世纪的英国拜荷兰为师;19世纪初的普鲁士王国向英国和法国学习;19世纪中明治维新时期的日本借鉴德国;二战后欧洲向美国看齐;而邓小平时期的中国则效仿日本。

通过制度上的借鉴和创造性的适应过程,成功的经济制度以及前沿技术得以向全世界扩散,从而促进了全球经济增长。只要更多的国家都能花点时间来学习别国的成功经验,对它们来说当前这种“政策套利”的巨大机会就依然存在。

例如,当许多国家正在面对就业危机的时候,资本主义世界的某些部分——北欧,包括德国,荷兰和斯堪的纳维亚半岛地区——表现尚可。今年夏季德国的失业率约为5.5%,其中年轻人的失业率约为8%——跟其他许多高收入国家相比,这算非常低的。

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