New York Stock Exchange Spencer Platt/Getty Images

Přeceňování daně z finančních transakcí

CAMBRIDGE – Ať už listopadové prezidentské volby ve Spojených státech dopadnou jakkoliv, jedním z návrhů, které budou pravděpodobně žít dál, je návrh na zavedení daně z finančních transakcí (FTT). Tato myšlenka sice v žádném případě není bláznivá, ale jen stěží je to všelék, za který ji její levicoví stoupenci považují. A rozhodně jde o slabou náhražku hlubší daňové reformy zaměřené na to, aby se celý systém stal jednodušším, průhlednějším a progresivnějším.

Jak americká společnost stárne a domácí nerovnost se prohlubuje – a také vzhledem k předpokladu, že úrokové sazby ze státního dluhu nakonec vzrostou –, budou se daně muset zvýšit: pro bohaté lidi naléhavě, ale jednoho dne i pro střední vrstvu. Žádný kouzelný proutek v tomto případě neexistuje a politicky vděčná myšlenka transakční „daně Robina Hooda“ se ošklivě přeceňuje.

Jistě, FTT už dnes v takové či onaké podobě používá řada rozvinutých států. Ve Velké Británii existuje několik staletí „stamp tax“ na prodeje akcií a také USA měly v letech 1914 až 1964 podobnou daň. Evropská unie má na stole kontroverzní plán, jenž by zdaňoval výrazně širší paletu transakcí.

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