wave crashing into sea wall Ian Forsyth/ZumaPress

Un sistema de alerta temprana para el mundo de las finanzas

NUEVA YORK – La reciente volatilidad de los mercados – en las economías en desarrollo y emergentes por igual – está mostrando, una vez más, cuánto pueden errar las agencias de calificación y los inversores en su evaluación de las vulnerabilidades económicas y financieras de los países. Las agencias de calificación esperan demasiado para detectar riesgos y rebajar las calificaciones de los países, mientras que los inversores se comportan como rebaños, ignorando con frecuencia la acumulación de riesgos durante un período demasiado largo antes de realizar cambios de manera brusca y provocar vaivenes exagerados en el mercado.

Dada la naturaleza de la agitación del mercado, un sistema de alerta temprana para tsunamis financieros puede ser difícil de crear; pero, el mundo lo necesita hoy más que nunca. Pocas personas previeron la crisis subprime del año 2008, el riesgo de incumplimiento crediticio en la eurozona, o la turbulencia actual en los mercados financieros de todo el mundo. Los dedos acusadores señalan a políticos, bancos e instituciones supranacionales. Pero, se exonera de culpa con demasiada facilidad a los analistas y las agencias de calificación que calcularon mal la capacidad de pago de los deudores – incluyéndose entre estos a los gobiernos.

Por principio, las calificaciones crediticias se fundamentan en modelos estadísticos basados en incumplimientos crediticios en el pasado; en la práctica, sin embargo, debido a que en los hechos se han tenido pocos incumplimientos crediticios nacionales, las calificaciones soberanas a menudo son un asunto subjetivo. Los analistas de las agencias de calificación siguen los acontecimientos en el país del cual son responsables y, en caso necesario, viajan a dicho país para examinar la situación.

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