以民主对抗恐怖主义

伦敦和土耳其的爆炸事件再一次把这样一个陈腐观念推到了人们的面前:那就是独裁政权能比民主制度更好地应对恐怖,而这些袭击是我们为自由付出的惨重代价。对有些人来讲,付出这种代价还算值得,但对另外一些人来讲,这样的代价似乎就有些太高了。

但认真研究一下从前的记录,就会发现民主国家比独裁政权拥有对抗恐怖的更为有效的武器。实际上,民主国家放弃道德、未能抵御住独裁诱惑之时,他们的力量才会削弱。

当然,片面地来看,呼吁限制自由背后的逻辑非常诱人:极端分子利用自由来从事犯罪,因此防止对自由权利的滥用需要缩减自由的范围。但这种说法的错误在于假定与生活在独裁政权中的人们相比,开放社会的公民更纵容恐怖活动,也更容易遭受恐怖分子的袭击。只需要看一看今天的俄国,或者回忆一下20世纪90年代的阿尔及利亚,就知道这样的想法有多么可笑。

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