Abschied von den alten Trennlinien bei der Entwicklung

Die Vorstellung einer Kluft zwischen dem reichen Norden und dem armen, unterentwickelten Süden war lange ein zentrales Konzept von Ökonomen und politischen Entscheidungsträgern. Zwischen 1950 und 1980 steuerte der Norden fast 80% zum globalen BIP bei, stellte jedoch nur 22% der Weltbevölkerung; auf den Süden entfielen die verbleibenden 80% der Weltbevölkerung und 20% des globalen Einkommens.

Diese Kluft zwischen Nord und Süd jedoch ist nun hinfällig geworden. Der dynamische Prozess der Globalisierung hat zu einem nie da gewesenen Maß an Wachstum und gegenseitiger Interdependenz geführt. Während dies jedoch diese alte Trennlinie verwischt hat, haben sich neue herausgebildet, die unsere heutige Welt in vier zusammenhängende Gruppen aufteilt.

Die erste Gruppe umfasst die wohlhabenden Länder, vor allem die Vereinigten Staaten, die europäischen Länder, Australien und Japan – mit einer Gesamtbevölkerung von etwa einer Milliarde Menschen und einem Pro-Kopf-Einkommen von zwischen 79.000 (Luxemburg) und 16.000 Dollar (Republik Korea). Während der vergangenen 50 Jahre haben diese wohlhabenden Länder die Weltwirtschaft dominiert und dabei vier Fünftel der Wirtschaftsleistung hervorgebracht. In den letzten Jahren jedoch ist eine Anzahl neuer Volkswirtschaften hervorgetreten, die die wirtschaftliche Vorherrschaft der wohlhabenden Länder in Frage stellen.

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