Wie auf dem Balkan die letzten Geister ausgetrieben werden

In den nächsten Wochen werden wir die auf die eine oder andere Art gestaltete Lösung der letzten verbleibenden territorialen Fragen auf dem Balkan miterleben, wo die Kriege der 90er Jahre mit den NATO-Interventionen in Bosnien (1995) und im Kosovo (1999) endeten.

Selbst im Frieden blieben wichtige Probleme ungelöst. Bosnien wurde in eine muslimisch-kroatische Föderation (Bosnien-Herzegowina) und eine Serbische Republik (Republika Srpska) aufgeteilt, wobei die Zentralregierung wenige Befugnisse erhielt und eine große internationale militärische – und schließlich zivile – Präsenz benötigt wird, um das Land zusammenzuhalten. Das Kosovo blieb Protektorat der Vereinten Nationen, dessen „endgültiger Status“ ungewiss war.

Diese ungelösten Fragen kehren nun zurück: Angetrieben von Serbiens Regierung erwägt Bosniens serbische Führung eine Abspaltung, selbst während die muslimische Führung versucht, die zentrale Gewalt zu verstärken. Und die albanische Bevölkerung im Kosovo schreit nach Unabhängigkeit, während Serbien versucht, eine Entscheidung zu verschieben, indem es das Handeln im Sicherheitsrat blockiert.

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