La justicia internacional a punto de abandonar el escenario

Recientemente participé en una conferencia en Belgrado titulada “Abordar el pasado en la antigua Yugoslavia”. Aunque el resto de la Europa poscomunista afrontó esas cuestiones hace un decenio, las guerras de los Balcanes en el decenio de 1990 dejaron tanto a los perpetradores como a sus víctimas empantanados en un limbo de justicia retrasada.

Mientras los participantes en la conferencia entraban en el Hotel Hyatt de Belgrado, eran recibidos por un airado grupo de personas, la mayoría de edad, que protestaban y enarbolaban carteles con el rótulo “Liberad a Milosevic”. En un barullo de medios de comunicación y agentes de seguridad, se encararon con Carla del Ponte, fiscal jefe del Tribunal Penal Internacional para la Antigua Yugoslavia (TPIAY) en La Haya. Del Ponte ha instado al Gobierno de Serbia a que coopere en relación con los casos aún no resueltos de Radovan Karadzic y Ratko Mladic, que ordenaron, ejecutaron y supervisaron la matanza de 7.000 hombres y nińos musulmanes en Srebrenica en 1995.

Los que protestaban no estaban desligados de la opinión serbia. Casi un decenio después del comienzo de la labor del TPIAY, todavía hace furor el debate sobre la responsabilidad por los crímenes de guerra y hay poco acuerdo sobre los hechos más básicos de los conflictos de Bosnia, Croacia y Kosovo. El intento del Primer Ministro serbio (entonces Presidente) Vojislav Kostunica en 2001 de crear una comisión de la verdad estuvo condenado desde el principio por las acusaciones de parcialidad y al cabo de un ańo dicha comisión fue disuelta.

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