La discriminación europea, a juicio

¿Qué sentido tienen los tratados de Europa dirigidos a garantizar la igualdad legal de todos los ciudadanos, cuando grupos enteros enfrentan una discriminación sistemática? Esa es la pregunta que el Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos (TEDH) enfrentará esta semana cuando su Gran Cámara, compuesta por 17 jueces, comience a ver la apelación a una sentencia inicial que rechazó las acusaciones de discriminación contra los romá por parte de las autoridades educacionales de la República Checa.

Todos los estados europeos son miembros del Consejo de Europa, todos han firmado la Convención Europea de Derechos Humanos, 39 de los 46 estados miembros han adoptado la Convención Marco para la Protección de las Minorías Nacionales, y 14 han ratificado el Protocolo 12 sobre la prohibición contra la discriminación. Sin embargo, las condiciones de vida de muchos romá siguen siendo abrumadoramente deficientes.

Aunque informes recientes publicados en 2006 por el Centro de Monitoreo de la Unión Europea sobre Racismo y Xenofobia y el Comisionado de Derechos Humanos del Consejo de Europa dan cuenta de algunas mejoras, señalan también que las condiciones de vida de los romá se han estancado, si es que no deteriorado. Siguen siendo víctimas de discriminación en el acceso a la vivienda, el empleo, la atención de salud y la educación, a pesar de importantes iniciativas locales estimuladas y apoyadas por el Consejo de Europa.

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