La discrimination en Europe en jugement

Quelle est la valeur des traités européens destinés à assurer l'égalité de tous les citoyens devant la loi si des groupes entiers font l'objet d'une discrimination systématique ? C'est la question à laquelle est confrontée la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme (CEDH). Sa Grande chambre de 17 juges doit examiner cette semaine en appel un premier jugement rejetant la plainte pour discrimination envers les Roms au sein du système éducatif de la République tchèque.

Bien que tous les Etats européens soient membres du Conseil de l’Europe, qu’ils aient tous adhéré à la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme, que 39 sur 46 aient ratifié la Convention-cadre sur le droit des minorités nationales, et 14 le Protocole n° 12 sur l’interdiction des discriminations, les conditions d’existence des Roms continuent pour beaucoup d’entre eux d’être déplorables.

Les derniers rapports publiés en 2006 émanant de l’Observatoire Européen des Phénomènes Racistes et Xénophobes de l’Union européenne et du Commissaire aux droits de l’homme du Conseil de l’Europe, s’ils constatent ici et là des améliorations, font état le plus souvent d’une stagnation des conditions de vie des Roms, quand ce n’est pas de leur dégradation. Malgré les importants efforts faits localement sous l’impulsion et avec l’appui du Conseil de l’Europe, les minorités roms demeurent victimes de nombreuses discriminations. Elles sont particulièrement criantes dans le domaine de l’accès au logement, de l’accès au travail, de l’accès à la santé et de l’accès à l’éducation.

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