Una unión bancaria para Año Nuevo

BRUSELAS – Cinco años después del estallido de la crisis financiera, la situación económica y política de Europa aún es frágil. Para este año se prevé una recesión leve, y el desempleo está en alza. No solo tenemos que reducir el déficit, sino también implementar un plan europeo de inversión por 120.000 millones de euros (155.000 millones de dólares) y fortalecer el Mercado Común Europeo para liberar todo su potencial de crecimiento.

Pero Europa también necesita otras medidas estructurales. La Unión Europea debe cortar el círculo vicioso que se ha formado entre cada uno de los estados miembros y los respectivos sistemas bancarios nacionales. Entre 2008 y 2011, los contribuyentes de la UE entregaron a los bancos 4,5 billones de euros en préstamos y garantías. En algunos países, la amenaza de que los bancos se debieran recapitalizar con fondos públicos provocó la pérdida de confianza de los mercados y un enorme aumento de los tipos de interés.

El Banco Central Europeo (BCE) ha tomado medidas decididas para romper este círculo vicioso; además, se ha llegado a un consenso respecto de que los 17 países de la eurozona necesitan complementar la moneda común con una unión bancaria. La Comisión Europea ha propuesto aplicar una normativa única para las exigencias de capital que se aplican a los bancos; que los esquemas nacionales de garantías de depósitos se respalden mutuamente; y definir normas únicas de resolución de quiebras bancarias para toda Europa, para que sean los accionistas y los acreedores, en vez de los contribuyentes, los que asuman la mayor parte de las pérdidas.

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