Bankenunion zum neuen Jahr

BRÜSSEL – Fünf Jahre nach dem Ausbruch der Finanzkrise bleibt Europas wirtschaftliche und politische Situation instabil. Für dieses Jahr wird in Europa eine leichte Rezession erwartet, und die Arbeitslosigkeit steigt. Neben dem Abbau der Defizite müssen wir einen europäischen Investitionsplan in Höhe von 120 Milliarden Euro umsetzen und den europäischen Binnenmarkt vertiefen, um sein Wachstumspotenzial auszuschöpfen.

Doch brauchen wir auch andere Strukturmaßnahmen. Die Europäische Union muss der negativen Rückkopplungsschleife zwischen einzelnen Mitgliedsstaaten und ihren nationalen Bankensystemen ein Ende bereiten. Zwischen 2008 und 2011 gewährten die EU-Steuerzahler den Banken 4,5 Billionen Euro in Form von Darlehen und Bürgschaften. In einigen Ländern hat die drohende Bankensanierung mit öffentlichen Mitteln zu einem Absinken des Marktvertrauens und einem gewaltigen Anstieg der Zinssätze geführt.

Die Europäische Zentralbank (EZB) hat entschlossene Maßnahmen ergriffen, um diesen Teufelskreis zu durchbrechen. Zudem herrscht jetzt Einigkeit darüber, dass zur gemeinsamen Währung der 17 Euroländer auch eine Bankenunion gehört. Die Europäische Kommission hat u. a. ein einheitliches Regelwerk für die Kapitalanforderungen der Banken vorgeschlagen, ferner die gegenseitige Unterstützung zwischen nationalen Einlagensicherungssystemen und europaweite Bestimmungen für die Auflösung insolventer Banken, die den Aktionären und Kreditgebern der Bank die Hauptlast aufbürden – nicht den Steuerzahlern.

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