L’union bancaire pour le Nouvel An

BRUXELLES – Cinq ans après le début de la crise financière, la situation politique et économique de l’Europe reste délicate. Une récession modérée est attendue en Europe cette année et le chômage va croissant. Au-delà de la réduction des déficits, nous devons mettre en œuvre le plan de relance européen de 120 milliards d’euros et approfondir le marché unique européen pour concrétiser son potentiel de croissance.

Mais d’autres mesures structurelles sont également nécessaires. L’Union européenne doit mettre fin à l’effet de rétroaction négatif entre les États membres et leurs systèmes bancaires nationaux. Entre 2008 et 2011, les contribuables de l’UE ont dû mobiliser 4500 milliards d’euros en aides et garanties publiques à leurs banques. Dans certains pays, l’éventualité d’une recapitalisation des banques au moyen de fonds publics a provoqué une perte de confiance des marchés et une flambée des taux d’intérêt.

La Banque centrale européenne (BCE) a pris des mesures décisives pour rompre ce cercle vicieux. Un consensus s’est également formé sur la nécessité d’une union bancaire des 17 pays de la zone euro qui aille de pair avec la monnaie unique. La Commission européenne a avancé des propositions sur une réglementation unique concernant les exigences de fonds propres des banques, l'harmonisation des systèmes de garantie des dépôts et un cadre européen unique pour le redressement des banques et la résolution de leurs défaillances qui fait porter leur poids sur les épaules des actionnaires et des créanciers au lieu des contribuables.

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