Novoroční bankovní unie

BRUSEL – Pět let po propuknutí finanční krize je ekonomická a politická situace Evropy stále křehká. Letos se v Evropě očekává mírná recese a nezaměstnanost stoupá. Kromě snižování schodku musíme realizovat evropský investiční plán ve výši 120 miliard eur a prohloubit jednotný trh Evropy, abychom uvolnili cestu jeho růstovému potenciálu.

Potřebujeme ale také další strukturální opatření. Evropská unie musí přerušit negativní zpětnou vazbu mezi jednotlivými členskými státy a jejich národními bankovními soustavami. V letech 2008 až 2011 daňoví poplatníci v EU poskytli bankám 4,5 bilionu eur v půjčkách a garancích. V některých zemích hrozba rekapitalizace bank z veřejných prostředků vyústila v propad tržní důvěry a obrovský vzestup úrokových sazeb.

Evropská centrální banka (ECB) podniká rázné kroky k prolomení tohoto bludného kruhu. Nadto dnes už panuje konsenzus, že 17 zemí eurozóny potřebuje bankovní unii, která doprovodí jejich společnou měnu. Evropská komise navrhuje jednotný soubor pravidel pro kapitálové požadavky vůči bankám, vzájemnou podporu národních programů záruk za depozita a celoevropská pravidla pro přístup ke krachujícím bankám, která uvalí hlavní břemeno na akcionáře a věřitele bank, nikoli na daňové poplatníky.

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