refugees walking along train tracks in Hungary Sima Diab/ZumaPress

欧洲被包围?

布鲁塞尔—因为大量移民穿越国境,许多欧洲人觉得他们的国家正在遭受袭击。不论他们拥有第一手与难民打交道的经验,还只是通过报纸上的照片了解难民,欧洲人都很清楚,为数巨大的绝望人群正在试图通过各种可能方式进入欧盟领土。但了解这一情况尚未转化为统一反应行动。

成员国之间的紧张似乎正在增加,也许是因为各国所面临的问题大相径庭。从人均角度衡量,瑞士接受的避难申请是英国的15倍。英国的难民外交政策仍然是欧盟中最不友好的。德国已经成为第一大目的地,接受的难民占欧盟总量的近40%;即使用人均衡量,也比欧盟平均水平高出数倍。

当然,对于如何划分对难民的责任,有明确的规则:根据所谓的都柏林规则(Dublin Regulation),难民所进入的第一个欧盟成员国必须对该难民的避难申请负责。但这显然是有问题的,因为它将所有负担都推给了欧盟边界国家。尽管这一问题在20世纪90年代尚不严重——欧盟国家每年总共只需要接受300,000避难申请——但如今避难申请总数增长了两倍,这一规则已不再合适。

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