Europas Test in Nordafrika

LONDON – Die Reaktionen Europas auf die historischen Revolutionen in Nordafrika bewegten sich hin und her zwischen Begeisterung und Angst. Die natürliche Neigung, die Demokratisierung im Mittelmeerraum zu feiern und zu unterstützen, wurde durch die Sorge gedämpft, dass die Krise auch an die europäischen Ufer gespült werden könnte.

Einige Staatsführer haben als Modell für eine groß angelegte europäische Entwicklungshilfe in der Region eine Art Marshallplan vorgeschlagen, der damals nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg als Ziel hatte, die demokratische Transformation zu stabilisieren und langfristig politische und wirtschaftliche Vorteile für Europa zu schaffen. Aber die Reaktion der Allgemeinheit war deutlich ängstlicher: Medien und Politiker in der gesamten Europäischen Union fühlen sich bedroht von der Aussicht auf Massen von Migranten an ihren Grenzen.

Dies sollte nicht auf die leichte Schulter genommen werden. Im Zuge der Kontroverse über tunesische Migranten in Italien wurde bereits damit begonnen, die politischen Grundlagen für die Freizügigkeit des Aufenthalts in der Schengen-Zone aufzuweichen. In der Zwischenzeit könnte der Krieg in Libyen dazu führen, dass tausende von Zivilisten vor der Gewalt fliehen und internationalen Schutz brauchen.

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