Mark Weber

Europe : l’étoile montante

BRUXELLES – Vingt ans après la chute du mur de Berlin et la fin de la guerre froide, les contours de l’ordre mondial restent à définir. Deux « méga tendances » se confirment : la vague de mondialisation la plus large et la plus profonde que le monde n’ait jamais connu et la montée en puissance de nouveaux acteurs mondiaux en Asie et ailleurs. Des voix s’élèvent aussi pour appeler à une coordination mondiale plus efficace pour relever les énormes défis de notre époque. Alors que le Traité de Lisbonne entre en application, l’Union Européenne est, je le crois, la mieux placée pour assumer ses responsabilités de leadership.

La mondialisation économique a plutôt bien profité à l’Asie et à l’Europe. Les économies dynamiques de l’Asie fournissent le monde, et leur remarquable croissance économique a soulagé des millions d’hommes et de femmes de la pauvreté et créé d’importantes opportunités d’investissement et de prospérité. Cela a permis à de grandes nations telles que la Chine et l’Inde de s’affirmer en confiance en tant que puissances mondiales. L’Europe, en capitalisant sur la mondialisation, a consolidé sa position de première  économie et centre d’échanges commerciaux du monde.

Mais la mondialisation est aussi synonyme de concurrence et oblige à afficher ses faiblesses. Les travailleurs craignent pour leur emploi et se sentent dépassés par le changement économique. La crise économique a exacerbé les travers de la mondialisation. Il en résulte que notre interdépendance économique requiert une coordination toute particulière, pas seulement dans les semaines à venir mais surtout sur le long terme.

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