Верховный суд Европы бросает вызов расизму

В Европейском суде по правам человека идут прения по двум наиболее важным делам за всю его историю. Подобно делу «Браун против Совета по образованию», благодаря которому полвека назад в Америке была наконец-то преодолена расовая сегрегация, Европейскому суду сейчас предстоит наполнить смыслом фундаментальный принцип равенства. Принимаемые решения могут помочь установить четкие основные нормы, которыми можно будет руководствоваться в дальнейшем при выработке политики по отношению к все более многочисленным этническим и религиозным меньшинствам Европы.

Истцами являются представители самого многочисленного и самого бедного меньшинства Европы – цыган, предки которых, как полагают, переселились из Индии много веков назад.

Одно из дел касается 18 цыганских детей из города Острава на северо-востоке Чешской Республики, которых поместили в «специальные» школы для умственно отсталых, где они получают заметно худшее образование. Дети доказывают, что такие школы являются помехой социальному и экономическому прогрессу. Многих цыганских детей отправляют в специальные школы, несмотря на то, что у них нет никаких признаков умственной неполноценности. Лишь немногие из них заканчивают школу, не говоря уже о поступлении в университет. В результате уровень безработицы среди цыган в Чешской Республике, как и в большинстве стран Европы, намного выше, чем среди остального населения.

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