El vacío pacto fiscal de Europa

CAMBRIDGE – La fuerza motriz de la política económica de Europa es el “proyecto europeo” de integración política. Ese objetivo se refleja en la creación de un “pacto fiscal” en el que está centrada actualmente la Unión Europea y que constitucionalizaría el compromiso de los Estados miembros con unos límites de déficits supuestamente inviolables. Lamentablemente, es probable que el pacto sea otro ejemplo de la subordinación de la realidad económica de Europa al deseo de los políticos de jactarse del avance hacia una “unión cada vez más estrecha.

En los últimos meses, los planes para un pacto fiscal han evolucionado rápidamente, al pasar de una “unión con transferencias”, políticamente impopular, a un peligroso plan de austeridad fiscal y, por último, a una versión modificada del difunto Pacto de Estabilidad y Crecimiento de 1997. Al final, el acuerdo al que se llegue este año poco contribuirá –por no decir nada– a cambiar las condiciones económicas de Europa.

La Canciller alemana, Angela Merkel, propuso al principio la “unión con transferencias”, en la que Alemania y otras economía fuertes de la zona del euro trasferirían fondos año tras año a Grecia y otros países necesitados, a cambio de la autoridad para regular y supervisar los presupuestos y las recaudaciones de impuestos de los países beneficiarios. El público alemán rechazó la idea de transferencias permanentes por parte de los contribuyentes alemanes a Grecia, mientras que los funcionarios y el público griego rechazaron la idea de un control alemán de la política fiscal de su país.

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